Important Terms

Hyperconnectivity - areas of the brain that are not usually connected, become connected

Neural Pruning- synaptic pruning is a neurological regulatory process, that changes neural structure by reducing the number of “weak” neurons to have an overall more efficient synaptic configuration

Retinitis Pigmentosa - an eye disease in which there is damage to the retina. This is a progressive disease in that symptoms get worse over time

Transcription Factors - a protein that binds to specific DNA sequences, controlling the transfer of genetic information from DNA to mRNA

Sensory Deafferentiation - The elimination or interruption of sensory nerve impulses by destroying or injuring the sensory nerve fibers.

Demyelination - any disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath of neurons is damaged. This impairs the conduction of signals in the affected nerves, causing impairment in sensation, movement, cognition, or other functions depending on which nerves are involved.

Ischemia - a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue.

Laterality - refers to the side of the inducer stimuli in relation to the side of the concurrent.

Limbic System - a set of brain structures including the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamic nuclei, and limbic cortex. This structure is said to play a role in the function of emotions, behavior, and long term memory.

Ipsilateral - on the same side of the brain

Keratoconus - Keratoconus is a deterioration of the structure of the cornea with gradual bulging from the normal round shape to a cone shape. This condition causes decreased visual acuity. The earliest symptom is subtle blurring of vision that cannot be corrected with glasses

SCR - Skin conductivity response; a well studied physiological responses. SCR is caused by activation of the sympathetic nervous system (levels of sweat to be linked to emotional arousal).

Parts of the Brain

V4 -tuned for orientation, spatial frequency, and color. Unlike V1, V4 is tuned for object features of intermediate complexity, like simple geometric shapes, although no one has developed a full parametric description of the tuning space for V4.

Anterior Lingual Gyrus - plays important role in dreaming and vision, especially in recognizing words, regardless of size, font, etc. Also responsible for color naming and categorization

Intraparietal sulcus - located on the lateral surface of the parietal lobe. Related to perceptual-motor coordination (for directing eye movements and reaching) and visual attention. Responsible for attention, binding, and multisensory processing

V1 (Primary Visual Cortex) - highly specialized for processing information about static and moving objects and is excellent in pattern recognition. Inferiotemporal region - This region is one of the higher levels of the ventral stream of visual processing, associated with the representation of complex object features, such as global shape. It may also be involved in face perception.

Optic nerve - transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.

Optic Chasm - the part of the brain where the optic nerves partially cross. The optic chiasm is located at the bottom of the brain immediately below the hypothalamus.

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