The External & Internal Arguments

* External Culture

  • Types:
    • (Super) Organic – off-shoot of Functionalism, culture is doing something specific for human beings. It acts upon them
    • Social Networks – how humans, in various placed, form relationships; much like Structural Functionalism
    • Public – the way in which behavior in public is culture, people come to interpret the world via symbols then re-craft the symbols and put it back into the public; social relationships and society; internalization of symbols, reminiscent of (Symbolic) Structuralism
  • Problem: separates culture into numerous categories, and we can study those categories but many aspects of them

* Internal Culture

  • Types:
    • Spiro's: adaptions, culture as a “determinant” of personality; human nature becomes those shared principles that govern the mind's functioning
    • Obeyeskere's internalized symbols, structural; something going on inside of us that is important and crafts perception of the world…
      • why opposites?
    • Schwartz & Cognitively Distributed theory: ordering of personal experience into templates, or schemas, that are used to interpret sensory input then generate the appropriate behavior for a given situation; shared understandings based on personal encounters/experiences.
  • Issue: concept of culture shares similarities with concept of race, and we know that isn't groovy.
Interlude: Direct culture definitions
  • E. B. Tylor: Culture […] is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws, customs, and any other capacities and habits acquired by man [sic] as a member of society (1871).
  • Franz Boas: Culture embraces all the manifestations of social behavior of a community, the reactions of the individual as affected by the habits of the group in which he lives, and the product of human activities as determined by these habits (1930).
  • B. Malinowski: Culture is the integral whole consisting of implements and consumers' goods, of constitutional charters for the various groupings, of human ideas and crafts, beliefs and customs. Whether we consider a very simple or primitive culture or an extremely complex and developed on, we are confronted by a vast apparatus, partly material, partly human, and partly spiritual, by which man is able to cope with the concrete, specific problems that face him (1944).
  • C. Levi-Strauss: Culture is neither natural nor artifical. It stems from neither genetics of rational thought, for it is made up of rules of conduct, which were not invented and whose function is generally not understood by the people who obey them. […] Yet there is no doubt that, between the instincts inherited from our genotype and the rules inspired by reason, the mass of unconscious rules remails more important and more effective; because reason itself […] is a product rather than a cause of cultural evolution (1983).
  • R. Rosaldo: Culture lends significance to human experience by selecting from and organizing it. It refers broadly to the forms throughout which people make sense of their lives […] It does not inhavit a set-aside domain, as does […] politics or economic. From the pirouettes of classical ballet to the most brute of brute facts, all human conduct is culturally mediated. Culture encompasses the everyday and esoteric, the mundane and the elevated, the ridiculous and sublime. Neither high nor low, culture is all-pervasive (1989).

Baggage Check: Culture || Cultural Variation is not Biological Variation