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language_proficiency [2011/05/15 14:33]
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language_proficiency [2011/05/15 14:35] (current)
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 Bilingualism negatively affects a child'​s lexical inventory of each language.{{ :​language.jpg|}} According to Bialystok, "​...bilingual children tend to have a smaller vocabulary in each language than monolingual children in their language"​ (Bialystok 2005, p. 2). In addition to lexical inventory bilingualism affects a child'​s ability to put together words in a sentence (syntax). It might be more difficult for someone that is bilingual to form a proper English or second language sentence than someone who is a monolingual speaker. A native speaker of Portuguese and English might say, "I have fever",​ instead of "I have a fever" because in Portuguese it is not necessary to use a determinant before a noun.  When forming an English sentence, this speaker includes Portuguese syntax. ​ In addition, children who are bilingual are able to learn novel words more efficiently,​ possibly because their learning of language is more flexible than that of children who are monolingual. Bilingualism negatively affects a child'​s lexical inventory of each language.{{ :​language.jpg|}} According to Bialystok, "​...bilingual children tend to have a smaller vocabulary in each language than monolingual children in their language"​ (Bialystok 2005, p. 2). In addition to lexical inventory bilingualism affects a child'​s ability to put together words in a sentence (syntax). It might be more difficult for someone that is bilingual to form a proper English or second language sentence than someone who is a monolingual speaker. A native speaker of Portuguese and English might say, "I have fever",​ instead of "I have a fever" because in Portuguese it is not necessary to use a determinant before a noun.  When forming an English sentence, this speaker includes Portuguese syntax. ​ In addition, children who are bilingual are able to learn novel words more efficiently,​ possibly because their learning of language is more flexible than that of children who are monolingual.
  
-Furthermore,​ research has shown that when a child speaks a second language at home that is not the one used in the dominant culture, it becomes his weaker language compared to the language used in his school and community. ​ In one study, two groups of Mandarin–English bilingual children (3–5-year-olds,​ 6–8-year-olds) participated in a picture identification and naming task in both languages. Results revealed age-related growth in the English but not the Mandarin vocabulary. ​ Composite vocabulary was larger than either single-language vocabulary in the younger children but was similar to English vocabulary in the older children. Furthermore,​ children showed a larger receptive–expressive modality difference in their weaker language (Mandarin) than in their stronger language (English) (Sheng,2006, p. 1). +Furthermore,​ research has shown that when a child speaks a second language at home that is not the one used in the dominant culture, it becomes his weaker language compared to the language used in his school and community. ​ In one study, two groups of Mandarin–English bilingual children (3–5-year-olds,​ 6–8-year-olds) participated in a picture identification and naming task in both languages. Results revealed age-related growth in the English but not the Mandarin vocabulary. ​ Composite vocabulary was larger than either single-language vocabulary in the younger children but was similar to English vocabulary in the older children. Furthermore,​ children showed a larger receptive–expressive modality difference in their weaker language (Mandarin) than in their stronger language (English) (Sheng 2006, p. 1). 
  
 =====Written Language Affects Reading Ability===== =====Written Language Affects Reading Ability=====
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 Bilingualism can have a positive impact on many life processes, such as a child'​s cognitive ability as well as a child'​s ability to read. Someone who is bilingual has a stronger repertoire of phonological,​ morphological,​ and syntactic skills. These skills provide a person who is bilingual with the necessary basis for learning how to read (University of Haifa 2011). ​ Bilingualism can have a positive impact on many life processes, such as a child'​s cognitive ability as well as a child'​s ability to read. Someone who is bilingual has a stronger repertoire of phonological,​ morphological,​ and syntactic skills. These skills provide a person who is bilingual with the necessary basis for learning how to read (University of Haifa 2011). ​
  
-However, in accessing the positive impact of bilingualism,​ one must also examine the similarities of the linguistic systems in question. ​  ​Bialystock concluded that "​...the knowledge of another language and skill in reading that language...influences children'​s literacy acquistion. ​ However, this influence might diminish or even disappear for two languages that use different writing systems." ​ Similarities in written language systems will have a positive impact upon a child'​s ability to learn addiitonal languages for both bilingual and second language learners (Bialystok Luk & McBride-Chang,​ 2005). If a child speaks both English and French he will have an accelerated reading ability compared to a monolingual speaker because the written language systems are similar. Both bilingual and second language learners exhibited phonological abilities that transferred across languages regardless of whether their written language systems were similar. ​ However, the same could not be said for decoding. ​ Bialystock found that if a child is bilingual in both English and Chinese, he will not exhibit any advantage nor show a deficit when learning how to read because those written language systems are very distinct. ​ Interestingly,​ competence in one language will always be weaker for those who learn a second language years after learning their first language. Finally, first-language measures can be useful in the early identification of children at risk for difficulty in learning to read in a second language (Jared ​//et al//. 2011). ​+However, in accessing the positive impact of bilingualism,​ one must also examine the similarities of the linguistic systems in question. ​  ​Bialystock concluded that "​...the knowledge of another language and skill in reading that language...influences children'​s literacy acquistion. ​ However, this influence might diminish or even disappear for two languages that use different writing systems." ​ Similarities in written language systems will have a positive impact upon a child'​s ability to learn addiitonal languages for both bilingual and second language learners (Bialystok Luk & McBride-Chang,​ 2005). If a child speaks both English and French he will have an accelerated reading ability compared to a monolingual speaker because the written language systems are similar. Both bilingual and second language learners exhibited phonological abilities that transferred across languages regardless of whether their written language systems were similar. ​ However, the same could not be said for decoding. ​ Bialystock found that if a child is bilingual in both English and Chinese, he will not exhibit any advantage nor show a deficit when learning how to read because those written language systems are very distinct. ​ Interestingly,​ competence in one language will always be weaker for those who learn a second language years after learning their first language. Finally, first-language measures can be useful in the early identification of children at risk for difficulty in learning to read in a second language (Jared, Cormier, Levy & Wade-Woolley ​2011). ​