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language_teaching [2013/12/14 09:34] (current)
asb5148 created
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 +**What is bilingual education?​**
 +  * “In broad terms, it can be explained as the use of two languages in school for a variety of purposes. In the United States, bilingual education is described as the approaches in the classroom that use native languages of English learners for instruction. “ Many students around the world are being educated in a language that is not their first.
 +
 +**How does it work?… there is not just one way. The three ways are classified as:**
 +  * //​Transitional//​
 +  * //​Developmental//​
 +  * //Two-way bilingual education// ​
 +  ​
 +**Is it needed? Many have succeeded without it.**
 +  * //​Rodrigez://​ Achieved high level of English literacy without a program to teach him first. Two advantages:
 +  * - Grew up in an English speaking neighborhood
 +  *   - He loved reading, which helped him develop his high level of English vocabulary
 +  * //De la Pena:// Achieved high level of English literacy with a program to teach him, but...:
 +  * - He was pushed back two grades when he came to the US from Mexico
 +  *   - But knowledge of subject matter made it easier for him to put the information into English
 +
 +**Multiple languages used in education due to:**
 +  * Linguistic heterogeneity of a country or region
 +  * Specific social or religious attitudes ​
 +  * Desire to promote national identity
 +  ​
 +**Research:​**
 +  * //There has been research conducted on the use of first and second languages in education that has since been reviewed. In order to conduct the research, had three types of countries in order to conducted and perform the experiment. These were://
 +  * - "Those with no or few mother tongue speakers of the language of wider communication (e.g., Haiti, Nigeria, the Philippines)"​
 +  *   - "Those with some mother tongue speakers of the language of wider communication (e.g., Guatemala)"​
 +  *   - "Those with many mother tongue speakers of the language of wider communication (e.g., Canada, New Zealand, the United States)” ​
 + //​Conclusions://​
 +    * - "​Sucess in school depends upon the child'​s mastery of cognitive/​acedemic language, which is very different from the socila language used at home."
 +  * - "The development of cognitive/​academic language requires time (4 to 7 years of formal instruction)."​
 +  *  - "​Individuals most easily develop literacy skills in a familiar language."​
 +  *  - "​Individuals most easily develop cognitive skills and master content material when they are taught in a familiar language."​
 +  *  - "​Cognitive/​academic language skills, once developed, and content subject material, once acquired, transfer readily from one language to another."​
 +  *  - "The best predictor of cognitive/​academic language development in a second language is the level of development of cognitive/​academic language proficiency in the first language."​
 +  *  - "​Children learn a second language in different ways depending upon their culture and their individual personality." ​
 +  *  - "If the goal is to help the student ultimately develop the highest possible degree of content mastery and second language proficiency,​ time spent instructing the child in a familiar language is a wise investment." ​
 + 
 +**Some say… :**
 +  * //​Negative://​ Some say that it is unwise for the U.S. to recognize other languages because it sends a message to immigrants that they don’t have to learn English and the “American ways. Others have said that bilingual education puts a target on the United States back for political attacks.
 +  * //​Positive://​ Evidence has shown that bilingual education programs, have “brought students up to the 50th percentile on standardized tests of English reading by grade five”, but without the proper books. However, those programs with the proper supply of books can make it far above the 50th percentile on the standardized tests.
 +
 +**How to have a successful bilingual education program?​** ​
 +//A research review, preformed for the World Bank,showed that there were common threads when identifying successful programs. These were://
 +  * “Development of the mother tongue is encouraged to promote cognitive development and as a basis for learning the second language.”
 +  * “Parental and community support and involvement are essential.”
 +  * “Teachers are able to understand, speak, and use with a high level of proficiency the language of instruction,​ whether is it their first or second language.”
 +  * “Teachers are well trained, have cultural competence and subject-matter knowledge, and continually upgrade their training.”
 +  * “Recurrent costs for innovative programs are approximately the same as they are for traditional programs, although there may be additional one-time start-up costs.”
 +  * “Recurrent costs for innovative programs are approximately the same as they are for traditional programs, although there may be additional one-time start-up costs.”
 +  ​
 +
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