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neural_organization_of_signed_and_spoken_language [2011/04/15 10:13]
ljgarten
neural_organization_of_signed_and_spoken_language [2011/04/15 16:05] (current)
jdunne
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 In addition, research shows major contributions from areas such as the basal ganglia and temporal gyrus for language, which also play a role in a variety of cognitive processes. ​ These areas along with other multi-function brain regions support the notion of wide-reaching and dynamic capabilities of brain structures for varying modalities. ​ In addition, research shows major contributions from areas such as the basal ganglia and temporal gyrus for language, which also play a role in a variety of cognitive processes. ​ These areas along with other multi-function brain regions support the notion of wide-reaching and dynamic capabilities of brain structures for varying modalities. ​
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 +===== Differences =====
 +The increased use of fMRI images while conducting such research allows for a deeper look into the exact brain areas activated and suggest the neural organization of language is not as similar as once thought. Due to recent work with fMRI studies, it is suggested that there are differences in hemisphere brain responses. fMRI activations during perception of both spoken and sign language in bilingual hearing participants depicted that some areas of the brain were activated more than other for either spoken v. sign.  Interestingly,​ the fMRI studies show that sign perception involves both hemispheres and is more bilateral than spoken language. ​ Spoken language activates other specific sub hemispheric areas and vice versa for sign language.  ​
  
 ===== Simultaneous Learning ===== ===== Simultaneous Learning =====
 The ability for an individual to utilize both a spoken language and a signed language is known as bimodal bilingualism. ​ It commonly occurs in hearing children of deaf parents, who learn spoken language from speaking relatives or teachers and sign language from their parents. ​ This capability is a unique and interesting form of bilingualism because it requires distinct sensory-motor systems. ​ Neural organization seems to lend itself to flexible progressions for controlling,​ processing, and representing two languages. ​ Bimodal bilinguals display a relationship between linguistic and non-linguistic function and second language acquisition. ​ Acquiring a signed language has shown to contribute to enhancements in a variety of non-linguistic visuospatial abilities. ​ These abilities are related to processing requirements for sign language as well. The ability for an individual to utilize both a spoken language and a signed language is known as bimodal bilingualism. ​ It commonly occurs in hearing children of deaf parents, who learn spoken language from speaking relatives or teachers and sign language from their parents. ​ This capability is a unique and interesting form of bilingualism because it requires distinct sensory-motor systems. ​ Neural organization seems to lend itself to flexible progressions for controlling,​ processing, and representing two languages. ​ Bimodal bilinguals display a relationship between linguistic and non-linguistic function and second language acquisition. ​ Acquiring a signed language has shown to contribute to enhancements in a variety of non-linguistic visuospatial abilities. ​ These abilities are related to processing requirements for sign language as well.
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 +Contrary to common misconceptions,​ hearing children of deaf parents do not struggle to learn spoken language, nor are they developmentally delayed in the acquisition of spoken language when compared to their monolingual speaking peers. Research suggests that if a bimodal bilingual child'​s language input consists of a minimum of 20% spoken language, they will hit developmental language milestones around the same time as monolingual speaking children of the same age. This simultaneous learning of language can be attributed to a method known as //fast mapping// - children pair novel phonological forms and sounds with semantic representations after very little exposure to the word and little to no exposure to the referent (using non linguistic cues such as eye gaze, gestures, etc.)
  
 ===== Sources ===== ===== Sources =====
 +Brackenbury T, Ryan T, Messenheimer T (2006) Incidental word learning in a hearing child of deaf adults. //Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education//​(11),​ 76–93.
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 Emmorey, K., & McCullough, S. (2008). ​ The bimodal bilingual brain: Effects of sign language experience. ​ //Brain & Language 117//(2), 53-62. doi:​10.1016/​j.bandl.2008.03.005 Emmorey, K., & McCullough, S. (2008). ​ The bimodal bilingual brain: Effects of sign language experience. ​ //Brain & Language 117//(2), 53-62. doi:​10.1016/​j.bandl.2008.03.005