Speaking

How is vocal speech in humans produced, developed, improved upon, changed and effected?

Speech is one form of communication that is generally seen as the main form of communication.

“Speech is the faculty or power of speaking; oral communication; ability to express one's thoughts and emotions by speech sounds and gesture” and “Speaking is the action of conveying information or expressing one's thoughts and feelings in spoken language.” by Dictionary.com

In this wiki entry we will be explaining how Communication in the form of vocal speech can produce errors and be perceived by people based about lexical and phonological arrangement of words and sentences.

Topics

Development of Production

What is the growth process of speech?

This shows a basic chart of how speech process works

“Speech recognition The speech recognition component converts the user's speech into a sentence of distinct words, by matching acoustic signals against a library of phonemes—irreducible units of sound that make up a word. The component delivers a ranked list of candidate sentences, either to the language-understanding component or directly to an application. This component uses acoustic processing (e.g., embedded microphone arrays), visual clues, and application-supplied vocabularies to improve its performance.

Language understanding The language understanding-component breaks down recognized sequences of words grammatically, and it systematically represents their meaning. The component is easy to customize, thereby easing integration into applications. It generates limited-domain vocabularies and grammars from application-supplied examples, and it uses these vocabularies and grammars to transform spoken input into a stream of commands for delivery to the application. It also improves language understanding by listening throughout a conversation—not just to explicit commands—and remembering what has been said.

Lite speech systems, with user-defined vocabularies and actions, can be tailored quickly to specific applications and integrated with other parts of the Oxygen system in a modular fashion.

Language generation The language generation component builds sentences that present application-generated data in the user's preferred language.

Speech synthesis A commercial speech synthesizer converts sentences, obtained either from the language generation component or directly from the application, into speech.” (http://www.rle.mit.edu/speech/research.html#Constraints)

Accouring to the nidcd, or National institute on deafness and other communication disorders, The brain is developing and maturing the most in the first 3 years of life. This is the most intensive period of the acquisition of language skills appear. (Speech and Language Developmental Milestones, 2010)

Here is a quick video to show child speech development in a simple way..

http://video.about.com/babyparenting/Infant-Speech-Development.htm

                                                                 And here is a chart... 

The stages of development shown in this chart and video are a general base for how children grow into speech, although acquisition of speech is fairly subjective to the child this has been seen to be a good correlation among majority of kids. From babbling to forming words it is all a matter of being exposed to language in order to develop properly. It is also important to not that babbling is a way of infants who are not physically able to speak words yet to test out there speech ability from what they hear from others around them.

here are some more stages and tips for development of child speech…

Speech and Language

Effective speaking

What has a positive impact on speech and learning speech?

Effective speech or charasmatic speaker how a certain vocal structure other then there body language that makes them better understood by the people around them.

This Video adresses some simple ways and tips people can improve there speaking: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pChtPHuF25Q

He speaks in this video of factore that allow for good or bad speaking habits. Speed, loudness and accents are main contributors of the clarity of ones speech.

According to research by Dr. Andrew Newberg of Thomas Jefferson University, only few of the words we read register in our brains and few of the words we speak register in the brain of someone listening to us speak. Dr. Newberg delves further into the dichotomy by stating that words themselves are among the least important things to consider when attempting to speak effectively with others.

Effective communication, according to Dr. Newberg, is devised by 8 Key Elements:

1) Gentle Eye Contact - use of eye contact that exhibits positive emotions more readily induces trust in our listeners

2) Warm Tone of Voice - many masterful liars use this to their advantage by using words the listener wants to hear, in a way the listener wants to hear them

3) Kind Facial Expressions - often it is simpler for us to control our words than what we (unconsciously) express facially. Many serial killers, during court trials and interviews, exhibit what scientists refer to as 'neural/cognitive dissonance' (expressing one attitude but exhibiting an opposing or contrary behavior) through fleeting smiles, both hinting towards their guilt and the enjoyment of their crime committed.

A Classic example of Neural/Cognitive Dissonance

www.wehonews.com_z_wehonews_files_ojglove.jpg

4) Expressive Hand and Body Gestures

5) Relaxed Disposition

6) Slow Speech Rate

7) Brevity

8) The words themselves

Errors within speech

What are speech errors?

There is a difference between a language disorder and a speech disorder. Language disorders are based upon understand where as speech disorders are based around producing speech sounds correctly. Disorders like Apraxia is a speech disorder that can cause difficulty putting sounds and syllables together in the correct order to form words. (Speech and Language Developmental Milestones, 2010)

here is a site for addition basic information on some speech errors

Speech Disorders summary

here is a main section taken from that site…

“Some speech sound errors can result from physical problems, such as:

  • *developmental disorders (e.g.,autism)
  • *genetic syndromes (e.g., Down syndrome)
  • *hearing loss
  • *illness
  • *neurological disorders (e.g., cerebral palsy)”

These different kind are important to identify when looking into speech therapy. Also knowing what kind of speech error some have can lead to knowing what other disorders may be a cause of this error.

Speech language pathology is described as the techniques, strategies, and interventions designed to improve or correct communication disorders. The individuals who are involved with the screening, assessment, and treatment of people with speech disorders are known as Speech-language pathologists. The specific speech disorders that are treated by speech-language pathologists are voice disorders, articulation disorders, and fluency disorders. Voice disorders are characterized by abnormalities in pitch, volume, vocal quality, or resonance or duration of sounds. Articulation disorders are related to individuals who have difficulty producing speech sounds. Fluency disorders are associated with impairment in the rate or rhyme of speech, such as stuttering. People who are suffering from isolated speech disorders are often treated using articulation therapy, and practice the repetition of certain sounds, words, phrases, and sentences. Fluency training is popular in treatments of stuttering and other fluency disorders. The training consists of developing coordination between speech and breathing, then helps to slow down the rate of speech, which further develops the ability to prolong syllables. They can first start to focus on just one single word fluently, and then gradually add more words. This process slowly increases the amount and difficulty of the person's speech, without stuttering.

References

  • Demir, Ö. E., Fisher, J. A., Goldin-Meadow, S., & Levine, S. C. (2013). Narrative processing in typically developing children and children with early unilateral brain injury: Seeing gesture matters. Developmental Psychology, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0034322

Speech-Language Pathology.“ The Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. Ed. Bonnie Strickland. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2001. 616-617. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 22 Nov. 2013.

Document URL http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX3406000609&v=2.1&u=psucic&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w&asid=ae810ce681a2c183439a501680dc

Feedback

Language and group Therapy Feedback…November 07, 2013 The outline is very organized and the amount of information provided is factual and efficient. I know that your group probably has to provide more information, but you are definitely off to a good start. I love the way it is organized so far.

Instructor Feedback

Draft #2

Hi Group - your peers have offered some great comments. here are a few more pointers to help you finish:

  • You should cite the sources of the images you're using AND explain them further. What are all those boxes in your first diagram? It looks like it is about intercultural/multilingual communication and synthetic speech.
  • likewise with the video. it's not enough to just link/present things - you need to explain it to the reader. this is the main thing you need to work on!
  • I'm not sure you've cited all of the sources you have listed.

Evan Bradley 2013/12/06 18:37

Draft #1

You have added a lot of great information! I would suggest elaborating a little more on each bit of information (for example, list the developmental milestones from the NIDCD report; also, I'm not sure how the autism study relates to the section it is in). You should be going beyond the outline format now, and really expanding on the information.

From an organizational standpoint, I would add some more introduction—this might help to tie your other information together.

Evan Bradley 2013/11/07 13:57


Language and Therapy group feedback:

From Toniann: Organization: I think everything is nicely organized and you have listed all of your main topics you would like to discuss. Although there are not many topics it seems that you have picked the main ones associated with speaking.

Clarity: I think each topic is headed in the right direction and it is made clear which topics you would like to discuss along the lines of speaking. You have added questions which you have answered which is great.

Content: I think the topics could go into more detail and you should start elaborating using the sources you have provided. So far the content seems great but more can be added.


From Bridget: I really like the direction your group has gone. Is there individual research going on or just as a group? The video was a nice touch to your topic.


From: Jacqueline Robertson- This page is really well written. When reading everyone's topic I felt as if it was easy to read and clear. It was well organized, but I think that this page would benefit from a little more information.


Bilingualism feedback #2

(Disclaimer)

Organization: So far, this page is looking ok,off to a good start. Should you make the research question well defined? it looks rushed,you should give it its own heading, and i don't see an introduction. off to a good start though

content: Please remove the wikipedia reference, I think the wikipedia reference is a minus. the speech process chart is not readable, you can make it bigger, since it's an important part of the page. it is obvious you have work to do on this page

Clarity: overall the page content is understandable and an easy read. overall good job so far — Afolashade Busari 2013/11/26 19:09

Organization: your main topic are well organize and defined, however, it it would be very helpful if you start with an introduction.

Clarity: I think the informations so far are very well written and your topics have a clear and concise definition. Content: The topic seems well researched but need sources or more information. — Matengy Toure 2013/11/27 19:09

Organization: Your page is very organized and I like the flow of the presentation. It is easy to navigate and I feel like it is easy to read and follow along.

Clarity: It is also very clear in what you want to present in your topic and the information that is presented.

Content: I really like the flow chart and the table, because it helps the reader to better understand the information. The pictures and the charts help the material presented easier for the reader to follow. There are also a lot of good information along with definitions so that the reader can understand the material. Good job! — Frangca Paek 2013/12/2 10:42

I think that the website overall is looking great. It's eye catching, and the information seems to be well organized, and clearly explained. However, I think there needs to be a little more information on some of the topics, and that the chart is helpful, so maybe add another in a different heading.

Organization: This Wiki page is organized extremely well!

Clarity: I really like how you guys condensed all of this information much narrower for easier comprehension. Everything is very clear.

Content: The content of your page seems to be well-thought out, and I really like the pictures and charts provided within this page. I would continue to add a little bit more information, as well as, some more charts (for us visual learners) :). Keep up the good work guys! — Sean Bender 2013/12/3 5:18

Content: I love the way the page is set up with descriptive photographs.It helps me to relate to your topic. I see that your page is well organized, clear, and straight to the point, but still making sure you touch on all your topics.

Organization: The wiki page is well put together, only thing in the intro a little slow to start but I enjoyed reading your page. Great job! —Tamika Critchlow 2013/12/3 10:30