Improvisational Music Throughout the World

We are researching and comparing different forms of instrumental improvised music throughout the world.


  • How to define improvisation: degrees of improvisation.
  • Methods of learning and transmitting improvisation
  • Levels of group interaction in improvised performance
  • Audience participation, interaction, and feedback.


Bailey, D. (1992). Improvisation: Its Nature and Practice in Music. USA: Da Capo Press Inc.

Booth, G. (1995). The Transmission of a Classical Improvisatory Performance Practice. International Journal of Music Education, 26(1), 14-26.

Elliot, D.J. (1995). Improvisation and Jazz: Implications for International Practice. International Journal of Music Education, 26(1), 3-13.

Sawyer, R. K. (2003). Group creativity: Music, theater, collaboration. Degrees of Improvisation in Group Creativity. Psychology Press. 139-161

Susilo, H. (1987). Improvisation in Wayang Wong Panggung: Creativity within Cultural Constraints. Yearbook for Traditional Music, 19, 1-11.